Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: An open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial

Nicola Longo, Cary O. Harding, Barbara K. Burton, Dorothy K. Grange, Jerry Vockley, Melissa P. Wasserstein, Gregory M. Rice, Alejandro Dorenbaum, Jutta K. Neuenburg, Donald G. Musson, Zhonghua Gu, Saba Sile

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. Methods In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0.001, 0.003, 0.010, 0.030, and 0.100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. Findings 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0.100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash. By the end of the study, all participants had developed antibodies against polyethylene glycol, and some against phenylalanine ammonia lyase as well. Drug concentrations peaked about 89-106 h after administration of the highest dose. Treatment seemed to be effective at reducing blood phenylalanine in all five participants who received the highest dose (mean reduction of 54.2% from baseline), with a nadir about 6 days after injection and an inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine returned to near-baseline concentrations about 21 days after the injection. Interpretation Subcutaneous administration of rAvPAL-PEG in a single dose of up to 0.100 mg/kg was fairly safe and well tolerated in adult patients with phenylketonuria. At the highest dose tested, rAvPAL-PEG reduced blood phenylalanine concentrations. In view of the development of antibodies against polyethylene glycol (and in some cases against phenylalanine ammonia lyase), future studies are needed to assess the effect of repeat dosing. Funding BioMarin Pharmaceutical.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-44
Number of pages8
JournalThe Lancet
Volume384
Issue number9937
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase
Phenylketonurias
Phenylalanine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Safety
Injections
Anabaena variabilis
Pharmacokinetics
Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
Antibodies
Excipients
Metabolic Diseases
Dizziness
Enzymes
Subcutaneous Injections
Exanthema
Ammonia
Multicenter Studies
Tyrosine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria : An open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial. / Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Rice, Gregory M.; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 384, No. 9937, 2014, p. 37-44.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Longo, Nicola ; Harding, Cary O. ; Burton, Barbara K. ; Grange, Dorothy K. ; Vockley, Jerry ; Wasserstein, Melissa P. ; Rice, Gregory M. ; Dorenbaum, Alejandro ; Neuenburg, Jutta K. ; Musson, Donald G. ; Gu, Zhonghua ; Sile, Saba. / Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria : An open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial. In: The Lancet. 2014 ; Vol. 384, No. 9937. pp. 37-44.
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abstract = "Background Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. Methods In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0.001, 0.003, 0.010, 0.030, and 0.100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. Findings 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0.100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash. By the end of the study, all participants had developed antibodies against polyethylene glycol, and some against phenylalanine ammonia lyase as well. Drug concentrations peaked about 89-106 h after administration of the highest dose. Treatment seemed to be effective at reducing blood phenylalanine in all five participants who received the highest dose (mean reduction of 54.2{\%} from baseline), with a nadir about 6 days after injection and an inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine returned to near-baseline concentrations about 21 days after the injection. Interpretation Subcutaneous administration of rAvPAL-PEG in a single dose of up to 0.100 mg/kg was fairly safe and well tolerated in adult patients with phenylketonuria. At the highest dose tested, rAvPAL-PEG reduced blood phenylalanine concentrations. In view of the development of antibodies against polyethylene glycol (and in some cases against phenylalanine ammonia lyase), future studies are needed to assess the effect of repeat dosing. Funding BioMarin Pharmaceutical.",
author = "Nicola Longo and Harding, {Cary O.} and Burton, {Barbara K.} and Grange, {Dorothy K.} and Jerry Vockley and Wasserstein, {Melissa P.} and Rice, {Gregory M.} and Alejandro Dorenbaum and Neuenburg, {Jutta K.} and Musson, {Donald G.} and Zhonghua Gu and Saba Sile",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria

T2 - An open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial

AU - Longo, Nicola

AU - Harding, Cary O.

AU - Burton, Barbara K.

AU - Grange, Dorothy K.

AU - Vockley, Jerry

AU - Wasserstein, Melissa P.

AU - Rice, Gregory M.

AU - Dorenbaum, Alejandro

AU - Neuenburg, Jutta K.

AU - Musson, Donald G.

AU - Gu, Zhonghua

AU - Sile, Saba

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. Methods In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0.001, 0.003, 0.010, 0.030, and 0.100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. Findings 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0.100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash. By the end of the study, all participants had developed antibodies against polyethylene glycol, and some against phenylalanine ammonia lyase as well. Drug concentrations peaked about 89-106 h after administration of the highest dose. Treatment seemed to be effective at reducing blood phenylalanine in all five participants who received the highest dose (mean reduction of 54.2% from baseline), with a nadir about 6 days after injection and an inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine returned to near-baseline concentrations about 21 days after the injection. Interpretation Subcutaneous administration of rAvPAL-PEG in a single dose of up to 0.100 mg/kg was fairly safe and well tolerated in adult patients with phenylketonuria. At the highest dose tested, rAvPAL-PEG reduced blood phenylalanine concentrations. In view of the development of antibodies against polyethylene glycol (and in some cases against phenylalanine ammonia lyase), future studies are needed to assess the effect of repeat dosing. Funding BioMarin Pharmaceutical.

AB - Background Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. Methods In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0.001, 0.003, 0.010, 0.030, and 0.100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. Findings 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0.100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash. By the end of the study, all participants had developed antibodies against polyethylene glycol, and some against phenylalanine ammonia lyase as well. Drug concentrations peaked about 89-106 h after administration of the highest dose. Treatment seemed to be effective at reducing blood phenylalanine in all five participants who received the highest dose (mean reduction of 54.2% from baseline), with a nadir about 6 days after injection and an inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine returned to near-baseline concentrations about 21 days after the injection. Interpretation Subcutaneous administration of rAvPAL-PEG in a single dose of up to 0.100 mg/kg was fairly safe and well tolerated in adult patients with phenylketonuria. At the highest dose tested, rAvPAL-PEG reduced blood phenylalanine concentrations. In view of the development of antibodies against polyethylene glycol (and in some cases against phenylalanine ammonia lyase), future studies are needed to assess the effect of repeat dosing. Funding BioMarin Pharmaceutical.

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