Uroplakin and androgen receptor expression in the human fetal genital tract: Insights into the development of the vagina

Ellen Shapiro, Hong Ying Huang, Xue Ru Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Although a dual origin of the vagina has been popularized, other theories support a mullerian or wolffian duct origin or various combinations of these structures and the urogenital sinus. Uroplakins are specialized membrane proteins of the urothelial plaque, constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of the bladder, and represent specific molecular markers of urothelial differentiation. We hypothesize that the epithelium of the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and will express uroplakins. In addition, localization of the androgen receptor and its temporal expression during development may in part explain the varied effects of androgens on the lower female genital tract in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: Lower genitourinary tracts from 4 human female fetuses (9 to 18 weeks) were serially sagittally sectioned. Representative sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, rabbit antibodies against panuroplakin and antibodies to the androgen receptor. Results: At 9 weeks of gestation the urogenital sinus showed evidence of evagination and the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The urothelium of the entire urogenital sinus expressed uroplakins including the region of the dorsal wall involved in evagination and formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The mullerian ducts were in direct contact with the area of urogenital sinus evagination but were not in continuity with the sinus. Androgen receptors were expressed in the epithelium and the stroma of the urogenital sinus, sinovaginal bulbs, and mullerian and wolffian ducts. By 14 weeks androgen receptor expression was almost absent in the urothelium of the urogenital sinus, and the epithelium and surrounding stroma of the lower vagina and mullerian ducts. Conclusions: The area of evagination of the urogenital sinus expresses uroplakins, is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and further substantiates the urogenital sinus origin of the lower vagina. Since testosterone inhibits formation of the lower vagina, the timing of exposure to systemic testosterone in congenital adrenal hyperplasia will determine the phenotypic appearance of the external genitalia and effect of testosterone on the development of the lower genital tract. If exposure to testosterone occurs after 12 weeks only clitoromegaly occurs. Androgen receptor is absent in the urogenital sinus urothelium, vaginal epithelium and mullerian ducts by 14 weeks, suggesting that these tissues become androgen insensitive and vaginal development will proceed normally after that critical time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1048-1051
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume164
Issue number3 II
StatePublished - Sep 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Uroplakins
Mullerian Ducts
Androgen Receptors
Vagina
Urothelium
Testosterone
Epithelium
Wolffian Ducts
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Androgens
Genitalia
Antibodies
Differentiation Antigens
Hematoxylin
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
Membrane Proteins
Urinary Bladder
Fetus
Rabbits
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • Androgen
  • Fetal development
  • Receptors
  • Vagina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Uroplakin and androgen receptor expression in the human fetal genital tract : Insights into the development of the vagina. / Shapiro, Ellen; Huang, Hong Ying; Wu, Xue Ru.

In: Journal of Urology, Vol. 164, No. 3 II, 09.2000, p. 1048-1051.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shapiro, Ellen ; Huang, Hong Ying ; Wu, Xue Ru. / Uroplakin and androgen receptor expression in the human fetal genital tract : Insights into the development of the vagina. In: Journal of Urology. 2000 ; Vol. 164, No. 3 II. pp. 1048-1051.
@article{6744f5698a9d4a229a1c2c435dc5738c,
title = "Uroplakin and androgen receptor expression in the human fetal genital tract: Insights into the development of the vagina",
abstract = "Purpose: Although a dual origin of the vagina has been popularized, other theories support a mullerian or wolffian duct origin or various combinations of these structures and the urogenital sinus. Uroplakins are specialized membrane proteins of the urothelial plaque, constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of the bladder, and represent specific molecular markers of urothelial differentiation. We hypothesize that the epithelium of the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and will express uroplakins. In addition, localization of the androgen receptor and its temporal expression during development may in part explain the varied effects of androgens on the lower female genital tract in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: Lower genitourinary tracts from 4 human female fetuses (9 to 18 weeks) were serially sagittally sectioned. Representative sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, rabbit antibodies against panuroplakin and antibodies to the androgen receptor. Results: At 9 weeks of gestation the urogenital sinus showed evidence of evagination and the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The urothelium of the entire urogenital sinus expressed uroplakins including the region of the dorsal wall involved in evagination and formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The mullerian ducts were in direct contact with the area of urogenital sinus evagination but were not in continuity with the sinus. Androgen receptors were expressed in the epithelium and the stroma of the urogenital sinus, sinovaginal bulbs, and mullerian and wolffian ducts. By 14 weeks androgen receptor expression was almost absent in the urothelium of the urogenital sinus, and the epithelium and surrounding stroma of the lower vagina and mullerian ducts. Conclusions: The area of evagination of the urogenital sinus expresses uroplakins, is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and further substantiates the urogenital sinus origin of the lower vagina. Since testosterone inhibits formation of the lower vagina, the timing of exposure to systemic testosterone in congenital adrenal hyperplasia will determine the phenotypic appearance of the external genitalia and effect of testosterone on the development of the lower genital tract. If exposure to testosterone occurs after 12 weeks only clitoromegaly occurs. Androgen receptor is absent in the urogenital sinus urothelium, vaginal epithelium and mullerian ducts by 14 weeks, suggesting that these tissues become androgen insensitive and vaginal development will proceed normally after that critical time.",
keywords = "Androgen, Fetal development, Receptors, Vagina",
author = "Ellen Shapiro and Huang, {Hong Ying} and Wu, {Xue Ru}",
year = "2000",
month = "9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "164",
pages = "1048--1051",
journal = "Journal of Urology",
issn = "0022-5347",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "3 II",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Uroplakin and androgen receptor expression in the human fetal genital tract

T2 - Insights into the development of the vagina

AU - Shapiro, Ellen

AU - Huang, Hong Ying

AU - Wu, Xue Ru

PY - 2000/9

Y1 - 2000/9

N2 - Purpose: Although a dual origin of the vagina has been popularized, other theories support a mullerian or wolffian duct origin or various combinations of these structures and the urogenital sinus. Uroplakins are specialized membrane proteins of the urothelial plaque, constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of the bladder, and represent specific molecular markers of urothelial differentiation. We hypothesize that the epithelium of the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and will express uroplakins. In addition, localization of the androgen receptor and its temporal expression during development may in part explain the varied effects of androgens on the lower female genital tract in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: Lower genitourinary tracts from 4 human female fetuses (9 to 18 weeks) were serially sagittally sectioned. Representative sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, rabbit antibodies against panuroplakin and antibodies to the androgen receptor. Results: At 9 weeks of gestation the urogenital sinus showed evidence of evagination and the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The urothelium of the entire urogenital sinus expressed uroplakins including the region of the dorsal wall involved in evagination and formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The mullerian ducts were in direct contact with the area of urogenital sinus evagination but were not in continuity with the sinus. Androgen receptors were expressed in the epithelium and the stroma of the urogenital sinus, sinovaginal bulbs, and mullerian and wolffian ducts. By 14 weeks androgen receptor expression was almost absent in the urothelium of the urogenital sinus, and the epithelium and surrounding stroma of the lower vagina and mullerian ducts. Conclusions: The area of evagination of the urogenital sinus expresses uroplakins, is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and further substantiates the urogenital sinus origin of the lower vagina. Since testosterone inhibits formation of the lower vagina, the timing of exposure to systemic testosterone in congenital adrenal hyperplasia will determine the phenotypic appearance of the external genitalia and effect of testosterone on the development of the lower genital tract. If exposure to testosterone occurs after 12 weeks only clitoromegaly occurs. Androgen receptor is absent in the urogenital sinus urothelium, vaginal epithelium and mullerian ducts by 14 weeks, suggesting that these tissues become androgen insensitive and vaginal development will proceed normally after that critical time.

AB - Purpose: Although a dual origin of the vagina has been popularized, other theories support a mullerian or wolffian duct origin or various combinations of these structures and the urogenital sinus. Uroplakins are specialized membrane proteins of the urothelial plaque, constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of the bladder, and represent specific molecular markers of urothelial differentiation. We hypothesize that the epithelium of the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and will express uroplakins. In addition, localization of the androgen receptor and its temporal expression during development may in part explain the varied effects of androgens on the lower female genital tract in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: Lower genitourinary tracts from 4 human female fetuses (9 to 18 weeks) were serially sagittally sectioned. Representative sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, rabbit antibodies against panuroplakin and antibodies to the androgen receptor. Results: At 9 weeks of gestation the urogenital sinus showed evidence of evagination and the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The urothelium of the entire urogenital sinus expressed uroplakins including the region of the dorsal wall involved in evagination and formation of the sinovaginal bulbs. The mullerian ducts were in direct contact with the area of urogenital sinus evagination but were not in continuity with the sinus. Androgen receptors were expressed in the epithelium and the stroma of the urogenital sinus, sinovaginal bulbs, and mullerian and wolffian ducts. By 14 weeks androgen receptor expression was almost absent in the urothelium of the urogenital sinus, and the epithelium and surrounding stroma of the lower vagina and mullerian ducts. Conclusions: The area of evagination of the urogenital sinus expresses uroplakins, is involved in the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs and further substantiates the urogenital sinus origin of the lower vagina. Since testosterone inhibits formation of the lower vagina, the timing of exposure to systemic testosterone in congenital adrenal hyperplasia will determine the phenotypic appearance of the external genitalia and effect of testosterone on the development of the lower genital tract. If exposure to testosterone occurs after 12 weeks only clitoromegaly occurs. Androgen receptor is absent in the urogenital sinus urothelium, vaginal epithelium and mullerian ducts by 14 weeks, suggesting that these tissues become androgen insensitive and vaginal development will proceed normally after that critical time.

KW - Androgen

KW - Fetal development

KW - Receptors

KW - Vagina

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033875535&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033875535&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10958738

AN - SCOPUS:0033875535

VL - 164

SP - 1048

EP - 1051

JO - Journal of Urology

JF - Journal of Urology

SN - 0022-5347

IS - 3 II

ER -