Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer: A case-control study

Geoffrey C. Kabat, Chee Jen Chang, Joseph A. Sparano, Daniel W. Sepkovic, Xiao Ping Hu, Abbas Khalil, Ruth Rosenblatt, H. Leon Bradlow

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Abstract

Preliminary studies suggest that the estrogen metabolite 16α- hydroxyestrone is associated with breast cancer, whereas 2-hydroxyestrone is not. However, epidemiological studies evaluating this relationship and taking established risk factors for breast cancer into account are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the ratio of the urinary estrogen metabolites (2-hydroxyestrone and 16α hydroxyestrone) and of the individual metabolites with breast cancer. A spot urine sample, a brief history, and clinical data were collected from breast cancer cases (n = 42) and from women coming to the hospital for a routine mammogram or attending a free breast cancer screening (n = 64). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α- hydroxyestrone were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the estrogen metabolite ratio (EMR; 2-hydroxyestrone:16α hydroxyestrone) was computed. Cases and controls were similar in terms of age (mean age of cases, 53.8 ± 15.1 years, versus 54.2 ± 10.4 years for controls; P = 0.9) and demographics. Mean EMR was not associated with breast cancer overall (1.67 ± 0.80 versus !.72 ± 0.66; P = 0.7). However, in postmenopausal women, the mean EMR was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (1.41 ± 0.73 versus 1.81 ± 0.71; P = 0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the intermediate and lowest tertiles of the EMR relative to the highest among postmenopausal women were 9.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-74.84) and 32.74 (95% confidence interval, 3.36-319.09), respectively. The test for trend was highly significant (P = 0.003). Analyses of the individual metabolites indicated that 16α-hydroxyestrone was a strong risk factor. The EMR did not show any consistent associations with age, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, parity, body mass index, family history of breast cancer, smoking, or alcohol intake. These data suggest a strong, inverse association of the EMR and a strong positive association of 16α-hydroxyestrone with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results and to assess the relationship of the EMR and of the individual metabolites with breast cancer, with attention to menopausal status and clinical factors and with adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)505-509
Number of pages5
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume6
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1997

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Case-Control Studies
Estrogens
Breast Neoplasms
Confidence Intervals
Birth Order
Parity
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Early Detection of Cancer
16-hydroxyestrone
Epidemiologic Studies
Body Mass Index
Smoking
History
Odds Ratio
Alcohols
Demography
Urine
2-hydroxyestrone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Kabat, G. C., Chang, C. J., Sparano, J. A., Sepkovic, D. W., Hu, X. P., Khalil, A., ... Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer: A case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 6(7), 505-509.

Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer : A case-control study. / Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Chang, Chee Jen; Sparano, Joseph A.; Sepkovic, Daniel W.; Hu, Xiao Ping; Khalil, Abbas; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Bradlow, H. Leon.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 6, No. 7, 1997, p. 505-509.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kabat, GC, Chang, CJ, Sparano, JA, Sepkovic, DW, Hu, XP, Khalil, A, Rosenblatt, R & Bradlow, HL 1997, 'Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer: A case-control study', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 505-509.
Kabat, Geoffrey C. ; Chang, Chee Jen ; Sparano, Joseph A. ; Sepkovic, Daniel W. ; Hu, Xiao Ping ; Khalil, Abbas ; Rosenblatt, Ruth ; Bradlow, H. Leon. / Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer : A case-control study. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 1997 ; Vol. 6, No. 7. pp. 505-509.
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abstract = "Preliminary studies suggest that the estrogen metabolite 16α- hydroxyestrone is associated with breast cancer, whereas 2-hydroxyestrone is not. However, epidemiological studies evaluating this relationship and taking established risk factors for breast cancer into account are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the ratio of the urinary estrogen metabolites (2-hydroxyestrone and 16α hydroxyestrone) and of the individual metabolites with breast cancer. A spot urine sample, a brief history, and clinical data were collected from breast cancer cases (n = 42) and from women coming to the hospital for a routine mammogram or attending a free breast cancer screening (n = 64). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α- hydroxyestrone were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the estrogen metabolite ratio (EMR; 2-hydroxyestrone:16α hydroxyestrone) was computed. Cases and controls were similar in terms of age (mean age of cases, 53.8 ± 15.1 years, versus 54.2 ± 10.4 years for controls; P = 0.9) and demographics. Mean EMR was not associated with breast cancer overall (1.67 ± 0.80 versus !.72 ± 0.66; P = 0.7). However, in postmenopausal women, the mean EMR was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (1.41 ± 0.73 versus 1.81 ± 0.71; P = 0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the intermediate and lowest tertiles of the EMR relative to the highest among postmenopausal women were 9.73 (95{\%} confidence interval, 1.27-74.84) and 32.74 (95{\%} confidence interval, 3.36-319.09), respectively. The test for trend was highly significant (P = 0.003). Analyses of the individual metabolites indicated that 16α-hydroxyestrone was a strong risk factor. The EMR did not show any consistent associations with age, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, parity, body mass index, family history of breast cancer, smoking, or alcohol intake. These data suggest a strong, inverse association of the EMR and a strong positive association of 16α-hydroxyestrone with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results and to assess the relationship of the EMR and of the individual metabolites with breast cancer, with attention to menopausal status and clinical factors and with adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors.",
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