Tumor necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β upregulate astrocyte expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Arthur A. Hurwitz, William D. Lyman, Joan W. Herman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

125 Scopus citations


Astrocytes participate in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease. Astrocyte expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, and major histocompatibility complex antigens may contribute to these inflammatory processes. In addition, recent data suggested that astrocytes may be a source of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 is a member of the chemokine family of small cytokines and functions both as a chemoattractant as well as a stimulator of monocytes. To further characterize the role of astrocytes in CNS inflammation, we examined the effect of inflammatory cytokines on MCP-1 expression by astrocytes. Results of these studies demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) upregulates MCP-1 message and protein expression. The pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) also stimulated MCP-1 expression. When astrocytes were exposed to both cytokines simultaneously, an additive effect on MCP-1 message, but not MCP-1 protein expression, was observed. These data suggest that TNFa and TGFβ, each present during CNS inflammatory disease, may upregulate the expression of MCP-1 which, in turn, may function to both recruit monocytes to the site of inflammation as well as to activate those monocytes already present in an inflammatory lesion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-198
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Mar 1995



  • Astrocytes
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
  • Transforming growth factor β
  • Tumor necrosis factor α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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