Background: Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) can be a rare complication of anterior segment surgery. Here we reviewed the most recent advances in the understanding of TASS. Methods: English articles related to TASS were retrieved from "PubMed" using the following keywords; "toxic anterior segment syndrome" or "TASS". The authors of this paper reviewed all the retrieved literature and critical findings were summarized. Results: The onset of TASS can vary from hours to months. The clinical manifestations are also variable. The causes of TASS are broad and continue to expand and could not be elucidated in over half of the reported cases. Prompt and thorough investigation to explore the causes of TASS is critical. Surgeons should be fully aware and updated regarding possible etiologies and make ceaseless efforts to prevent TASS. This effort begins with establishing TASS prevention protocols and regularly training surgical staff. Proper cleaning of surgical instruments is critical and should follow the guidelines set by The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery TASS Task Force. When TASS occurs, sharing information with other ophthalmologists and reporting new causes is crucial for the prevention of outbreaks. Conclusions: Anterior segment surgeons should be reminded that TASS is mostly preventable by the establishment of TASS prevention protocols, regular surgical staff training and thorough adherence to recommendations for cleaning and sterilizing intraocular surgical instruments.
- Anterior chamber
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