Objectives: To characterize the temporal characteristics of clinical variables with time lock to mortality and build a predictive model of mortality associated with COVID-19 using clinical variables. Design: Retrospective cohort study of the temporal characteristics of clinical variables with time lock to mortality. Setting: Stony Brook University Hospital (New York) and Tongji Hospital. Patients: Patients with confirmed positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 using polymerase chain reaction testing. Patients from the Stony Brook University Hospital data were used for training (80%, N = 1,002) and testing (20%, N = 250), and 375 patients from the Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) data were used for testing. Intervention: None. Measurements and Main Results: Longitudinal clinical variables were analyzed as a function of days from outcome with time-lock-to-day of death (non-survivors) or discharge (survivors). A predictive model using the significant earliest predictors was constructed. Performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC). The predictive model found lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes, procalcitonin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, respiratory rate, and white-blood cells to be early predictors of mortality. The AUC for the zero to 9 days prior to outcome were: 0.99, 0.96, 0.94, 0.90, 0.82, 0.75, 0.73, 0.77, 0.79, and 0.73, respectively (Stony Brook Hospital), and 1.0, 0.86, 0.88, 0.96, 0.91, 0.62, 0.67, 0.50, 0.63, and 0.57, respectively (Tongji Hospital). In comparison, prediction performance using hospital admission data was poor (AUC = 0.59). Temporal fluctuations of most clinical variables, indicative of physiological and biochemical instability, were markedly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study identified several clinical markers that demonstrated a temporal progression associated with mortality. These variables accurately predicted death within a few days prior to outcome, which provides objective indication that closer monitoring and interventions may be needed to prevent deterioration.
- clinical variables
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