The preceding paper [Dam, T. K., Roy, R., Pagé, D., and Brewer, C. F. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 1351-1358] demonstrated that Hill plots of isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) data for the binding of di-, tri-, and tetravalent carbohydrate analogues possessing terminal 3,6-di-Ο-(α-D-mannopyranosyl)-α-D-mannopyranoside residues to the lectin concanavalin A (ConA) show increasing negative cooperativity upon binding of the analogues to the lectin. The present study demonstrates "reverse" ITC experiments in which the lectin is titrated into solutions of di- and trivalent analogues. The results provide direct determinations of the thermodynamics of binding of ConA to the individual epitopes of the two multivalent analogues. The n values (number of binding sites per carbohydrate molecule) derived from reverse ITC demonstrate two functional binding epitopes on both the di- and trivalent analogues, confirming previous "normal" ITC results with the two carbohydrates [Dam, T. K., Roy, R., Das, S. K., Oscarson, S., and Brewer, C. F. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 14223-14230]. The reverse ITC measurements show an 18-fold greater microscopic affinity constant of ConA for the first epitope of the divalent analogue versus its second epitope and a 53-fold greater microscopic affinity constant of ConA binding to the first epitope of the trivalent analogue versus its second epitope. The data also demonstrate that the microscopic enthalpies of binding of the two epitopes on the di- and trivalent analogues are essentially the same and that differences in the microscopic Ka values of the epitopes are due to their different microscopic entropies of binding values. These findings are consistent with the increasing negative Hill coefficients of these analogues binding to ConA in the previous paper.
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