Carnitine is an amino acid derivative that has a key role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and ATP formation. Carnitine deficiency has been described in various conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). The deficiency of this micronutrient is postulated to lead to adverse effects across multiple organ systems. There is a paucity of information on carnitine deficiency and its effects in the pediatric CKD and ESRD populations. Currently, there is no evidence supporting the routine use of carnitine supplementation in children with ESRD. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, pharmacokinetics and the potential effects of levo-carnitine supplementation with a focus on the pediatric CKD and ESRD populations. Finally, potential future directions of research are discussed.
- Cardiac disease
- Carnitine deficiency
- Kidney disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health