The Memory Binding Test: Development of Two Alternate Forms into Spanish and Catalan

Nina Gramunt, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Herman Buschke, Faustino Diéguez-Vide, Jordi Peña-Casanova, Xavier Masramon, Karine Fauria, Juan D. Gispert, José L. Molinuevo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Background: The Memory Binding Test (MBT) is emerging as a promising tool for the detection of subtle memory impairment suggestive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). For such a test to be widely accessed and used, the availability of both alternate forms and language adaptations is required. Objectives: To develop a thorough methodology for obtaining alternate forms (A and B) of the MBT in Spanish and Catalan and to assess their equivalence. Method: According to the original development of the test, frequency was taken as the lexical variable of reference for the Spanish and Catalan adaptations. A crossed design protocol by form and language was used to compare the MBT results in a sample of 290 cognitively normal middle-aged participants. Pairwise Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated among the six possible combinations. Results: The Spanish and Catalan lists of words for the MBT A and B resulting from the adaptation process as well as the original lists in English are presented. ICC indices for the comparisons between forms and languages ranged from 0.56 to 0.82. Conclusion: The MBT A and B in Spanish and Catalan showed similar outcomes and can be considered equivalent. Moreover, the thorough methodology presented here for the transcultural adaptation and equivalence study, could serve as a model for future adaptations of the MBT and other verbal tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-293
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 26 2016


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cognition
  • episodic memory
  • neuropsychological assessment
  • preclinical
  • psycholinguistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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