Background: Concealed left-sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in the young. Most are mapped with right ventricular (RV) apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from three pediatric electrophysiology (EP) centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. Methods: All patients <21 years undergoing EP study from 2008 to 2014 with a "hidden" CLAP (defined as an accessory pathway [AP] for which RV pacing at cycle lengths [CL] stable for mapping did not demonstrate eccentric retrograde conduction) were included. Exclusion criteria: preexcitation. Demographic, procedural, and follow-up data were collected. Results: A total of 23 patients met the criteria (median age, 14.3 years [range 7-21], weight, 51 kg [31-99]). 21 (96%) had SVT and one AFIB (4%). APs were adenosine sensitive in 7/20 patients (35%) and VA conduction was decremental in six (26%). CLAP conduction was demonstrable with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia in all patients, with RV extrastimulus testing in seven (30%) and with rapid RV pacing (<CL 300) in three (13%). Left ventricular (LV) pacing demonstrated CLAP conduction in 17/17 (100%) patients in whom it was used. All 23 CLAPs were successfully ablated (100%) via transseptal approach with radiofrequency energy. Specific ablation techniques included: 16 (70%) during LV paced rhythm, four (17%) during orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia (ORT; 3/4 ventricular entrained), and three (13%) with brief rapid RV pacing. There were no complications. At 18 months (range 3-96), there was one recurrence (4%). Conclusions: Some CLAPs are only demonstrable with LV pacing, entrained ORT, or rapid RV pacing. LV pacing facilitated preferential AP conduction, allowing for mapping while maintaining stable hemodynamics.
- Accessory pathway
- Orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia
- Supraventricular tachycardia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine