Previous reports have suggested that renal allograft recipients have an increased mortality rate when returned to hemodialysis. We studied the survival of patients returned to hemodialysis after losing a renal allograft and compared it with the survival of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis during the same period as reported by individual centers in the United States and by the European Dialysis and Transplant Association. Six-year actuarial survival of 83 patients after loss of a first transplant and of 37 patients after loss of two or more transplants compared favorably with data on survival of patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. We conclude that a transplant recipient is not at increased risk when returned to hemodialysis.
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