The combination of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and isoniazid or rifampin is bactericidal and prevents the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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36 Scopus citations

Abstract

The challenges of developing new drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) are indicated by the relatively small number of candidates entering clinical trials in the past decade. To overcome these issues, we reexamined two FDA-approved antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), for use in TB treatment. SMX and TMP inhibit folic acid biosynthesis and are used in combination to treat infections of the respiratory, urinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. The MICs ofSMXand TMP, alone and in combination, were determined for drug-susceptible, multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. While TMP alone was not effective against M. tuberculosis, the combination of TMP and SMX was bacteriostatic against M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, the combination of SMX and TMP was also active against a subset of MDR M. tuberculosis strains. Treatment of M. tuberculosis with TMP-SMX and a first-line anti-TB drug, either isoniazid or rifampin, was bactericidal, demonstrating that the combination of TMP and SMX with isoniazid or rifampin was not antagonistic. Moreover, the addition of SMX-TMP in combination with either isoniazid or rifampin also prevented the emergence of drug resistance in vitro. In conclusion, this study further illustrates the opportunity to reevaluate the activity of TMP-SMX in vivo to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5142-5148
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume56
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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