Background: Ischemic mitral regurgitation is a condition characterized by mitral insufficiency secondary to an ischemic left ventricle. Primarily, the pathology is the result of perturbation of normal regional left ventricular geometry combined with adverse remodeling. We present a comprehensive review of contemporary surgical, medical, and percutaneous treatment options for ischemic mitral regurgitation, rigorously examined by current guidelines and literature. Methods: We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (through November 2018) for studies reporting perioperative or late mortality and echocardiographic outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical intervention for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Results: Treatment of this condition is challenging and often requires a multimodality approach. These patients usually have multiple comorbidities that may preclude surgery as a viable option. A multidisciplinary team discussion is crucial in optimizing outcomes. There are several options for treatment and management of ischemic mitral regurgitation with differing benefits and risks. Guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure is the treatment choice for moderate and severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, with consideration of coronary revascularization, mitral valve surgery, cardiac resynchronization therapy, or a combination of these, in appropriate candidates. The use of transcatheter mitral valve therapy is considered appropriate in high-risk patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, heart failure, and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, especially in those with hemodynamic instability. Conclusions: The role of mitral valve surgery and transcatheter mitral valve therapy continues to evolve.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine