Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage after Intravenous Thrombolysis: Predictive Factors and Validation of Prediction Models

Taha Nisar, Rajanigandhi Hanumanthu, Priyank Khandelwal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase (IV-rtPA) has a known risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). We aim to identify factors with a significant association with the development of sICH post-IV-rtPA. We also aim to perform an external validation of sICH predicting scores in our patient population. Material and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who received IV-rtPA at our tertiary care hospital. We excluded patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed various factors recorded at presentation such as presenting mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, verify Aspirin, verify Plavix, age, sex, platelet count, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, onset to treatment time, weight, sex, and early infarct signs on computed tomography (CT) head and compared them between sICH and non-sICH groups. For validation of sICH scores, we used documented variables to calculate the following scores for each patient: stroke prognostication using age and NIH stroke scale-100 (SPAN-100), DRAGON, CUCCHIARA, hemorrhage after thrombolysis (HAT), SEDAN, totaled health risks in vascular events, and safe implementation of thrombolysis in stroke-symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Results: sICH rate in our cohort of 89 patients was 5.62% according to the European-Australasian Cooperative Acute Stroke Study-II (ECASS-II) criteria and 7.86% according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) criteria. In the multivariate regression analysis, MAP (95% CI, .001-.01; P .002), blood glucose greater than or equal to 185 mg/dL (95% CI, .12-.45; P .001) and presence of early infarct signs (95% CI, .06-.25; P .002) had a significant association with the development of sICH with the ECASS-II definition of sICH post-IV-rtPA, whereas, only MAP (95% CI, 1.01-1.18; P .025) and verify Aspirin less than 500 (95% CI, .01-.80; P .032) had a significant association with the development of sICH with the NINDS definition of sICH post-IV-rtPA. Our study found that HAT (95% CI, .58-.96; P .044) and DRAGON (95% CI, .61-.96; P .012) scores had the highest area under the curve (AUC) with respect to ECASS-II and NINDS criteria of sICH, respectively. Conclusions: We found that presenting MAP, presence of early infarct signs on CT Head and blood glucose greater than or equal to 185 mg/dL upon a patient's presentation have a significant association with sICH post-IV-rtPA when the ECASS-II definition was used, while presenting MAP and verify Aspirin less than 500 upon a patient's presentation have a significant association with sICH post-IV-rtPA when the NINDS definition was used. Our study found that HAT and DRAGON scores had the highest AUC, and they were the most valid in predicting the development of sICH in our independent cohort. Patients with these risk factors should receive more intensive neurological monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104360
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute stroke outcome
  • ischemic stroke
  • stroke
  • stroke emergency cerebrovascular care
  • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH)
  • thrombolysis
  • tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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