Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significantly higher incidence and prevalence in women than men. The presentation of the disease in women is modulated by changes in sex hormones from adolescence to pregnancy and menopause. Yet, the effect of sex influences has often been neglected in both basic and clinical and in clinical management of the disease. In this review, evidence from epidemiological, clinical, animal, and neuroimaging studies on the significance of the sex-related influences in migraine is presented, and the unmet needs in each area are discussed.
- cortical spreading depression
- menstrual migraine
- trigeminal pathway
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience