Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease results from NHANES 2001 to 2004

Michal L. Melamed, Paul Muntner, Erin D. Michos, Jaime Uribarri, Collin Weber, Jyotirmay Sharma, Paolo Raggi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

239 Scopus citations


Objective-The puipose of this study was to determine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the general United States population. Methods and Results-We analyzed data from 4839 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004 to evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and PAD (defined as an ankle-brachial index <0.9). Across quartiles of 25(OH)D, from lowest to highest, the prevalence of PAD was 8.1%, 5.4%, 4.9%, and 3.7% (P trend <0.001). After multivariable adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, physical activity level, and laboratory measures, the prevalence ratio of PAD for the lowest, compared to the highest, 25(OH)D quartile (<17.8 and ≥29.2 ng/mL, respectively) was 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.74). For each 10 ng/mL lower 25(OH)D level, the multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio of PAD was 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.59). Conclusions-Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of PAD. Several mechanisms have been invoked in the literature to support a potential antiatherosclerotic activity of vitamin D. Prospective cohort and mechanistic studies should be designed to confirm this association. (Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol. 2008;28:1179-1185)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1179-1185
Number of pages7
JournalArteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2008



  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • PTH
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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