We identified amplification of RICTOR, a key component of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), as the sole actionable genomic alteration in an 18-year-old never-smoker with lung adenocarcinoma. Amplification of RICTOR occurs in 13% of lung cancers (1,016 cases) in The Cancer Genome Atlas and at a similar frequency in an independent cohort of 1,070 patients identified by genomic profiling. In the latter series, 11% of cases harbored RICTOR amplification as the only relevant genomic alteration. Its oncogenic roles were suggested by decreased lung cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo with RICTOR ablation, and the transforming capacity of RICTOR in a Ba/F3-cell system. The mTORC1/2 inhibitors were significantly more active against RICTOR -amplified lung cancer cells as compared with other agents targeting the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway. Moreover, an association between RICTOR amplification and sensitivities to mTORC1/2 inhibitors was observed. The index patient has been treated with mTORC1/2 inhibitors that led to tumor stabilization for more than 18 months. Significance: RICTO R amplification may define a novel and unique molecular subset of patients with lung cancer who may benefit from treatment with mTORC1/2 inhibitors.
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