Nutrition guidelines are emphasizing dietary patterns as primary and secondary prevention trials provide increasing evidence of the importance of lifestyle changes to prevent/control cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. Despite the increasing evidence that weight loss and modified dietary patterns are effective, there is considerable debate about the level of carbohydrate that will be most beneficial. Epidemiologic studies indicate that certain ethnic and racial minority groups have increased CVD risk with higher rates of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. Immigrant and Native American populations have had a dramatic rise in obesity, diabetes, and ultimately CVD with acculturation, accompanied by a higher fat intake and decreased physical activity. Culturally tailored intervention approaches are being used to reduce risk. The lack of third-party payment still limits the availability of nutrition services. However, medical nutrition therapy is covered by Medicare for diabetes and pending legislation will extend coverage to CVD. Medical education researchers have developed tools such as the WAVE (Weight, Activity, Variety and Excess) pocket guide as a quick method to facilitate addressing referral for medical nutrition therapy that can be readily incorporated into practice settings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine