Rationale, design and pilot feasibility results of a smartphone-assisted, mindfulness-based intervention for smokers with mood disorders: Project mSMART MIND

Haruka Minami, Hannah R. Brinkman, Shadi Nahvi, Julia H. Arnsten, Monica Rivera-Mindt, David W. Wetter, Erika Litvin Bloom, Lawrence H. Price, Carlos Vieira, Remington Donnelly, Lauren M. McClain, Katherine A. Kennedy, Erica D'Aquila, Micki Fine, Danielle E. McCarthy, J. Graham Thomas, Jacki Hecht, Richard A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Background: Although individuals with psychiatric disorders are disproportionately affected by cigarette smoking, few outpatient mental health treatment facilities offer smoking cessation services. In this paper, we describe the development of a smartphone-assisted mindfulness smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM), as well as the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) targeting smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. We also report the results of an open-label pilot feasibility study. Methods: In phase 1, we developed and pilot-tested SMI-CM, which includes a smartphone intervention app that prompts participants to practice mindfulness, complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports 5 times per day, and submit carbon monoxide (CO) videos twice per day. Participants earned incentives if submitted videos showed CO ≤ 6 ppm. In phase 2, smokers receiving outpatient treatment for mood disorders are randomized to receive SMI-CM or enhanced standard treatment plus non-contingent CM (EST). Results: The results from the pilot feasibility study (N = 8) showed that participants practiced mindfulness an average of 3.4 times/day (≥ 3 min), completed 72.3% of prompted EMA reports, and submitted 68.0% of requested CO videos. Participants reported that the program was helpful overall (M = 4.85/5) and that daily mindfulness practice was helpful for both managing mood and quitting smoking (Ms = 4.50/5). Conclusions: The results from the feasibility study indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with SMI-CM. The ongoing RCT will allow evaluation of the efficacy and mechanisms of action underlying SMI-CM for improving cessation rates among smokers with mood disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-44
Number of pages9
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2018


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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