Objective: To investigate the association of psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities with persistent post-traumatic headache (PTH) attributed to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: A total of 100 patients with persistent PTH attributed to mild TBI and 100 age- and gender-matched healthy controls free of mild TBI were enrolled between July 2018 and June 2019. Quality of sleep was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, while symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaire, while post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Results: In 100 patients with persistent PTH, 85% reported poor quality sleep, compared with 42% of healthy controls (P < 0.01). The relative frequency of probable to high risk of anxiety was 52% in the persistent PTH group vs. 8% in healthy controls (P < 0.01), while the relative frequency of probable to high risk of depression was 42% in the persistent PTH group vs. 2% in healthy controls (P < 0.01). Furthermore, 27% of the patients with persistent PTH had mild cognitive impairment while 10% had probable PTSD. Conclusions: Poor quality of sleep as well as symptoms suggestive of anxiety and depression were more common in patients with persistent PTH than healthy controls. Clinicians should screen patients with persistent PTH for these comorbidities and develop treatment plans that account for their presence.
- Cognitive impairment
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine