Protease inhibitor use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a large cohort of HIV-infected women

Jessica E. Justman, Lorie Benning, Ann Danoff, Howard Minkoff, Alexandra Levine, Ruth M. Greenblatt, Kathleen Weber, Eva Piessens, Esther Robison, Kathryn Anastos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the association between protease inhibitor (PI) use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study. The diagnosis of DM was based on self-report at semiannual interviews conducted from 1 Lincoln Medical Center994 to 1998. Setting: Six inner-city clinical sites in the United States (Brooklyn, NY; Bronx, NY; Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; and Los Angeles, CA). Participants: A total of 1785 nonpregnant women who had no history of prior DM. The women made up four groups: 1) PI users (n = 609, person-years [PY] at risk = 707); 2) reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-only users (n = 932, PY = 1486); 3) HIV-infected women reporting no antiretroviral therapy (ART) ever (n = 816, PY = 1480); and 4) HIV-uninfected women (n = 350, PY = 905). Main Outcomes: Incidence of DM and median body mass index (BMI) from 1995 to 1998 were compared among the four groups. Results: Sixty-nine incident cases of DM occurred among 1785 women (1.5 cases per 100 PY; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). The incidence of DM among PI users was 2.8 cases per 100 PY (2.8%) versus 1.2% among both RTI users and women on no ART (95% CI: 1.6-4.1 [PI]; 0.7-1.8 [RTI and no ART]; P = 0.01 for comparison of the PI group with the RTI group) and 1.4% among HIV-uninfected women (95% CI: 0.7-2.2, P = 0.06 for comparison with PI group). Weight gain was not associated with either PI or RTI use. Multivariate models identified PI use (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.90 [95% CI: 1.50-5.60]; P = 0.002), age (HR = 1.75 per 10 years [95% CI: 1.31-2.34]; P = 0.0002) and BMI as independent risk factors for DM. Conclusions: PI use was associated with a threefold increase in the risk of reporting incident DM. Routine screening for diabetes, particularly among older and heavier patients using PI therapy, is advisable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-302
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Endocrine
  • Epidemiology
  • Lipodystrophy
  • Natural history
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Reverse transcriptase inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Protease inhibitor use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a large cohort of HIV-infected women'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this