To review the current and newer, alternative methods for evaluating lymph nodes for tumor involvement in bladder cancer as relapse rates for organ-confined disease remain high despite improvements in surgical technique, suggesting the possibility of understaging. To propose a research agenda based on these findings. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify studies examining the prognostic implications of and outcomes associated with lymph node involvement in bladder cancer as well as those that utilized newer methodologies to identify the possibility for metastatic disease. Lymph node involvement remains one of the strongest predictors of clinical outcome in bladder cancer. Histologic and molecular techniques for identification of lymph node metastasis provide a sensitivity and specificity equal to if not higher than standard pathologic evaluation. Further research into this field would help to elucidate the potential utility of these techniques with regard to proper staging and potential relevance to clinical outcomes.
- Lymph node
ASJC Scopus subject areas