Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by motor and non-motor features. Although some progress has been made in conventional PD treatments, these breakthroughs have yet to show high efficacy in treating this neurodegenerative disease. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Probiotics have putative anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Multiple lines of evidence show that probiotics control and improve several motor and non-motor symptoms in patients and experimental animal models of PD. Probiotic supplementation mediates these pharmacological effects by targeting a variety of cellular and molecular processes, i.e., oxidative stress, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as apoptosis. Herein, we summarize the effects of probiotics on motor and non-motor symptoms as well as various cellular and molecular pathways in PD.
- Parkinson’s disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology