Background: Implant-based breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Although numerous matrices are available, there is little literature comparing them. This study compares the rates of complications between two commonly used products: AlloDerm (human cadaveric) and SurgiMend (fetal bovine) acellular dermal matrices. Methods: A retrospective review of a single center's 6-year experience was performed for consecutive, immediate breast reconstructions with acellular dermal matrix from 2009 to 2014. The authors compared demographics and surgical characteristics between patients receiving AlloDerm versus SurgiMend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine any association between type of matrix and surgical complications and to identify other clinical predictors for complications. Results: A total of 640 patients underwent 952 reconstructions using AlloDerm [578 breasts (61 percent)] or SurgiMend [374 breasts (39 percent)]. The average follow-up was 587 days. Multivariate analysis revealed that type of matrix was not an independent risk factor for the development of complications. However, smoking, age, radiotherapy, and initial tissue expander fill volume were associated with increased risk of postoperative complications. Conclusions: Both AlloDerm and SurgiMend acellular dermal matrices demonstrate similar rates of major complications when used in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. In contrast, preoperative radiation therapy, smoking, increasing age, and initial tissue expander fill volume are independent risk factors for postoperative complications. Reconstructive surgeons should take these findings into consideration when performing implant-based breast reconstruction with a dermal matrix.
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