Parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum, such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, undergo complex life cycles involving multiple stages with distinct biology and morphologies. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation, acetylation and glycosylation, regulate numerous cellular processes, playing a role in every aspect of cell biology. PTMs can occur on proteins at any time in their lifespan and through alterations of target protein activity, localization, protein–protein interactions, among other functions, dramatically increase proteome diversity and complexity. In addition, PTMs can be induced or removed on changes in cellular environment and state. Thus, PTMs are likely to be key regulators of developmental transitions, biology and pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites. In this review we examine the roles of PTMs in both parasite-specific and conserved eukaryotic processes, and the potential crosstalk between PTMs, that together regulate the intricate lives of these protozoa.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology