Platelets: Implications in Aortic Valve Stenosis and Bioprosthetic Valve Dysfunction From Pathophysiology to Clinical Care

Stephanie L. Sellers, Gaurav S. Gulsin, Devyn Zaminski, Rong Bing, Azeem Latib, Janarthanan Sathananthan, Philippe Pibarot, Rihab Bouchareb

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common heart valve disease requiring surgery in developed countries, with a rising global burden associated with aging populations. The predominant cause of AS is believed to be driven by calcific degeneration of the aortic valve and a growing body of evidence suggests that platelets play a major role in this disease pathophysiology. Furthermore, platelets are a player in bioprosthetic valve dysfunction caused by their role in leaflet thrombosis and thickening. This review presents the molecular function of platelets in the context of recent and rapidly evolving understanding the role of platelets in AS, both of the native aortic valve and bioprosthetic valves, where there remain concerns about the effects of subclinical leaflet thrombosis on long-term prosthesis durability. This review also presents the role of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies on modulating the impact of platelets on native and bioprosthetic aortic valves, highlighting the need for further studies to determine whether these therapies are protective and may increase the life span of surgical and transcatheter aortic valve implants. By linking molecular mechanisms through which platelets drive disease of native and bioprosthetic aortic valves with studies evaluating the clinical impact of antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies, we aim to bridge the gaps between our basic science understanding of platelet biology and their role in patients with AS and ensuing preventive and therapeutic implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1020
Number of pages14
JournalJACC: Basic to Translational Science
Volume6
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • TAVR
  • aortic stenosis
  • calcified aortic valves
  • platelets
  • thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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