The demonstration of leptin receptors on the pancreatic β-cells suggests the possibility of direct actions of leptin on insulin secretion. In vitro studies on islets or perfused pancreas and β-cell lines produced inconsistent results. We performed an in vivo study to distinctly examine whether leptin has an effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Young chronically catheterized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 28) were subjected to a 4-h hyperglycemic clamp study (∼ 11 mmol/l). At minute 120 to 240, rats were assigned to receive either saline or leptin (0.1, 0.5, and 5 μg · kg-1 · min) infusion. Leptin decreased plasma insulin levels abruptly, and an approximately twofold decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with saline control was sustained over the 2 h of the study (14.8 ± 5.8 vs. 34.8 ± 2.6 ng/ml with leptin and saline infusion, respectively, P < 0.001). Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in plasma insulin levels was noted (r = -0.731, P < 0.01). Since milrinone, an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, did not reverse the effect of leptin on glucose-induced insulin secretion, its action may be independent of PDE3. These findings suggest that acute physiological increase in plasma leptin levels acutely and significantly inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. The site of leptin effects on insulin secretion remains to be determined.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism