A retrospective review of 547 renal transplants performed over a six-year period revealed allograft renovascular hypertension secondary to RTAS in 39 (7.1%) patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) resulted in immediate cure or improvement in 76% of the patients, increasing to 83% in patients with functioning kidneys at a mean follow-up period of 30 months (1–72 months). The renal artery stenosis (RTAS) was equally distributed between living-related and cadaver kidney recipients and did not appear to be more prevalent in end-to-end or end-to-side anastomoses. The blood pressures fell from pre-PTA levels of 167 ± 22 mmHg systolic to 141 ± 23.7 post-PTA and 102 ± 11 mmHg diastolic pre-PTA to 88 ± 12 mmHg post-PTA (P < 0.01). Of 25 cured or improved patients, 24 are on significantly less hypertensive medication. Two patients died of causes unrelated to the PTA and only one patient lost a kidney because of the procedure. Compared with operation, PTA is a safer and more effective procedure for the initial treatment of RTAS.
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