Background: The benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in female patients has been questioned by various randomized, prospective trials, particularly in asymptomatic cases; several have noted an increase in perioperative stroke among women after CEA. The outcome of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has not been extensively examined in women. This study examined the outcome of CEA and CAS in women vs men by using a national database. Methods: Outcomes of CEA and CAS were stratified by sex using discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The NIS was used to identify patient discharges that occurred during 2004 and 2005. Appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) procedure and diagnosis codes were used to identify CEA and CAS cases. Outcome measures included in-hospital perioperative stroke and death. Comparisons of demographics, procedures, and outcome were performed between men and women. Additional analysis was performed among women alone to attempt to identify whether improved outcome was noted with either procedure. Results: Of 54,658 procedures, 94.2% were CEA and 5.8% were CAS. Women comprised 42.3% of the analyzed cases. Women and men were equally likely to be symptomatic (5.3% vs 5.3%, P = .8). Women were significantly less likely to undergo CAS than men (5.4% vs 6.1%, P < .001). Women and men had equivalent rates of perioperative stroke when undergoing CEA (1.0% vs 1.0%, P = .9) and CAS (2.7% vs 2.0%, P = .2). Symptomatic women had a significantly higher rate of perioperative stroke overall than did symptomatic men (3.8% vs 2.3%, P = .03). Asymptomatic women had a significantly lower perioperative stroke rate after CEA than after CAS (0.9% vs 2.1%, P < .001). Rates of perioperative showed a trend favoring CEA vs CAS among symptomatic women (3.4% vs 6.2%, P = .1). Conclusions: The concern regarding an increased perioperative stroke rate after CEA among asymptomatic women appears to be unfounded. The perioperative stroke rate among symptomatic women was higher than that of symptomatic men, but still well within the acceptable range for symptomatic patients undergoing a cerebrovascular intervention. Nationally, women underwent CAS significantly less frequently than did men. Outcome among women for perioperative stroke favored CEA over CAS, particularly in asymptomatic patients. CEA may be the preferred treatment in women seeking intervention for cerebrovascular disease, unless compelling reasons exist to perform CAS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine