Plasma cell neoplasms have been classified as multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma and extramedullary plasmacytoma. They are usually considered as osteolytic lesions of bone except for the rare occurrence of osteosclerotic lesions. This paper describes the first reported osteosclerotic plasmacytoma of the maxillary bone and orbital floor. The difficulties in establishing a diagnosis and the relationship to other plasma cell neoplasms are discussed. Osteosclerotic plasmacytomas are a rare variant of plasma cell tumors which usually produce osteolytic lesions rather than bony sclerosis. Sixty-eight patients with the osteosclerotic variant have appeared in the world literature, with an overall incidence of about 1 per cent in a large series of plasma cell neoplasms. There have been only six previous cases of solitary osteosclerotic plasmacytomas reported involving spine, sternum, or rib. None have previously been reported in the head and neck area. Plasma cell tumors have been classified into multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytomas of bone, and extramedullary plasmacytomas. Multiple myeloma is a disseminated plasma cell malignancy characterized by the production of homogeneous immunoglobulins (whole or fragments) which appear in the serum and urine. Plasma cell tumors can also occur as solitary plasmacytomas, usually in bone, but also in soft tissue. With time, most solitary plasmacytomas developed disseminated disease with all the characteristics of multiple myeloma. Extramedullary plasmacytomas arise in soft tissue rather than bone, and primarily occur in the head and neck region. Clinically, they remain localized and less frequently develop into disseminated myeloma.
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