Background Current commercialized small-diameter arterial grafts have not shown clinical effectiveness due to their poor patency rates. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an arterial bioresorbable vascular graft, which has a porous sponge-type scaffold, as a small-diameter arterial conduit. Methods The grafts were constructed by a 50:50 poly (1-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer (PLCL) scaffold reinforced by a poly (1-lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber. The pore size of the PLCL scaffold was adjusted to a small size (12.8 ± 1.85 μm) or a large size (28.5 ± 5.25 μm). We compared the difference in cellular infiltration, followed by tissue remodeling, between the groups. The grafts were implanted in 8- to 10-week-old female mice (n = 15 in each group) as infrarenal aortic interposition conduits. Animals were monitored for 8 weeks and euthanized to evaluate neotissue formation. Results No aneurysmal change or graft rupture was observed in either group. Histologic assessment demonstrated favorable cell infiltration into scaffolds, neointimal formation with endothelialization, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and elastin deposition in both groups. No significant difference was observed between the groups. Immunohistochemical characterization with anti-F4/80 antibody demonstrated that macrophage infiltration into the grafts occurred in both groups. Staining for M1 and M2, which are the two major macrophage phenotypes, showed no significant difference between groups. Conclusions Our novel bioresorbable vascular grafts showed well-organized neointimal formation in the high-pressure arterial circulation environment. The large-pore scaffold did not improve cellular infiltration and neotissue formation compared with the small-pore scaffold.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine