The proinflammatory response leads to various types of pathologic pathways, including the development of preterm birth. Preterm birth occurs in 12% of deliveries in the United States and causes more than 70% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of spontaneous preterm birth is intrauterine infection in the mother. There is accumulating evidence indicating that the release of proinflammatory cytokines plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated premature delivery. We found that the common organic solvent, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), prevents endotoxin-induced preterm birth in timed pregnant C57BL/6 embryonic day (E)15.5 mice and rescues their pups from spontaneous abortion at doses many-fold lower than those currently used clinically and in a dose-dependent fashion. We also provide histologic evidence that DMA suppresses the endotoxin-triggered proinflammatory response by significantly attenuating inflammatory cell infiltration of placental tissue. Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis of placental tissue harvested from our murine models revealed DMA-mediated regulation of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6, and increased expression of the regulatory inflammatory cytokine IL-10. By using in vitro studies, we provide evidence that DMA suppresses macrophage function and that this small molecule prevents nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kB. These results suggest that DMA represents a newly discovered, nontoxic therapy for a broad range of inflammatory disorders.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine