Traumatic fistulas were successfully embolized using various transvascular approaches in 33 of 34 lesions. Complete superselective angiographic demonstration of the exact site of the shunt and possible collaterals was necessary to choose the appropriate embolization techniques. Improvement in the signs of orbital congestion was seen in all cases. Embolization, which directly occludes the fistula, precludes recurrences via collateralization and restores the normal arteriovenous gradient to the eye and optic nerve.
- carotid cavernous fistula
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