The toxicology of mercury (Hg) is of concern since this metal is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, and living organisms are routinely exposed to Hg at low to high levels. The toxic effects of Hg are well studied and it is known that they may differ depending on the Hg chemical species. In this chapter, we emphasize the neurotoxic effects of Hg during brain development. The immature brain is more susceptible to Hg exposure, since all the Hg chemical forms, not only the organic ones, can harm it. The possible consequences of Hg exposure during the early stages of development, the additive effects with other co-occurring neurotoxicants, and the known mechanisms of action and targets will be addressed in this chapter.