Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET)

Robert Hardy, Argye Hillis, Don Mutti, Richard Stone, Carol Taylor, Li Ming Dong, Melissa Fazzari, Jane Gwiazda, Leslie Hyman, Thomas Norton, Frank Thorn, Qinghua Zhang, Jane Gwiazda, Thomas Norton, Kenneth Grice, Christine Fortunato, Cara Weber, Alexandra Beale, David Kern, Sally BittingerDebanjali Ghosh, Rosanna Pacella, Frank Thorn, M. Cristina Leske, Mohamed Hussein, Li Ming Dong, Melissa Fazzari, Wei Hou, Elinor Schoenfeld, Lynette Dias, Rachel Harrison, Wen Zhu, Qinghua Zhang, Ying Wang, Ahmed Yassin, Elissa Schnall, Cristi Rau, Jennifer Thomas, Marcela Wasserman, Yi Ju Chen, Sakeena Ahmed, Leanne Merill, Lauretta Passanant, Maria Rodriguez, Allison Schmertz, Ann Park, Phyllis Neuschwender, Geeta Veeraraghavan, Angela Santomarco, Laura Sisti, Lydia Seib, Donald Everett, Wendy Marsh-Tootle, Katherine Niemann, Marcela Frazier, Catherine Baldwin, Carey Dillard, Kristine Becker, James Raley, Angela Rawden, Nicholas Harris, Trana Mars, Robert Rutstein, Daniel Kurtz, Erik Weissberg, Bruce Moore, Elise Harb, Robert Owens, Sheila Martin, Joanne Bolden, Justin Smith, David Kern, Sally Bittinger, Debanjali Ghosh, Benny Jaramillo, Stacy Hamlett, Laura Vasilakos, Sarah Gladstone, Chris Owens, Patricia Kowalski, Jennifer Hazelwood, Ruth Manny, Connie Crossnoe, Karen Fern, Sheila Deatherage, Charles Dudonis, S. Henry, Jennifer McLeod, Mamie Batres, Julio Quiralte, Giselle Garza, Gabynely Solis, Joan Do, Andy Ketcham, Mitchell Scheiman, Kathleen Zinzer, Karen Pollack, Timothy Lancaster, Theresa Elliott, Mark Bernhardt, Dan Ferrara, Jeff Miles, Scott Wilkins, Renee Wilkins, Jennifer Nicole Smith, Dawn D'Antonio, Lindsey Lear, Sandy Dang, Charles Sporer, Mary Jameson, Abby Grossman, Mariel Torres, Heather Jones, Melissa Madigan-Carr, Theresa Sanogo, Jo Ann Bailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between -1.25 and -4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was -4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, -4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = -0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7871-7883
Number of pages13
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume54
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Myopia
Parents
Least-Squares Analysis
African Americans
Linear Models

Keywords

  • Associated factors
  • Gompertz function
  • Myopia
  • Myopia progression
  • Myopia stabilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET). / Hardy, Robert; Hillis, Argye; Mutti, Don; Stone, Richard; Taylor, Carol; Dong, Li Ming; Fazzari, Melissa; Gwiazda, Jane; Hyman, Leslie; Norton, Thomas; Thorn, Frank; Zhang, Qinghua; Gwiazda, Jane; Norton, Thomas; Grice, Kenneth; Fortunato, Christine; Weber, Cara; Beale, Alexandra; Kern, David; Bittinger, Sally; Ghosh, Debanjali; Pacella, Rosanna; Thorn, Frank; Cristina Leske, M.; Hussein, Mohamed; Dong, Li Ming; Fazzari, Melissa; Hou, Wei; Schoenfeld, Elinor; Dias, Lynette; Harrison, Rachel; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Ying; Yassin, Ahmed; Schnall, Elissa; Rau, Cristi; Thomas, Jennifer; Wasserman, Marcela; Chen, Yi Ju; Ahmed, Sakeena; Merill, Leanne; Passanant, Lauretta; Rodriguez, Maria; Schmertz, Allison; Park, Ann; Neuschwender, Phyllis; Veeraraghavan, Geeta; Santomarco, Angela; Sisti, Laura; Seib, Lydia; Everett, Donald; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Niemann, Katherine; Frazier, Marcela; Baldwin, Catherine; Dillard, Carey; Becker, Kristine; Raley, James; Rawden, Angela; Harris, Nicholas; Mars, Trana; Rutstein, Robert; Kurtz, Daniel; Weissberg, Erik; Moore, Bruce; Harb, Elise; Owens, Robert; Martin, Sheila; Bolden, Joanne; Smith, Justin; Kern, David; Bittinger, Sally; Ghosh, Debanjali; Jaramillo, Benny; Hamlett, Stacy; Vasilakos, Laura; Gladstone, Sarah; Owens, Chris; Kowalski, Patricia; Hazelwood, Jennifer; Manny, Ruth; Crossnoe, Connie; Fern, Karen; Deatherage, Sheila; Dudonis, Charles; Henry, S.; McLeod, Jennifer; Batres, Mamie; Quiralte, Julio; Garza, Giselle; Solis, Gabynely; Do, Joan; Ketcham, Andy; Scheiman, Mitchell; Zinzer, Kathleen; Pollack, Karen; Lancaster, Timothy; Elliott, Theresa; Bernhardt, Mark; Ferrara, Dan; Miles, Jeff; Wilkins, Scott; Wilkins, Renee; Smith, Jennifer Nicole; D'Antonio, Dawn; Lear, Lindsey; Dang, Sandy; Sporer, Charles; Jameson, Mary; Grossman, Abby; Torres, Mariel; Jones, Heather; Madigan-Carr, Melissa; Sanogo, Theresa; Bailey, Jo Ann.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 54, No. 13, 03.10.2013, p. 7871-7883.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hardy, R, Hillis, A, Mutti, D, Stone, R, Taylor, C, Dong, LM, Fazzari, M, Gwiazda, J, Hyman, L, Norton, T, Thorn, F, Zhang, Q, Gwiazda, J, Norton, T, Grice, K, Fortunato, C, Weber, C, Beale, A, Kern, D, Bittinger, S, Ghosh, D, Pacella, R, Thorn, F, Cristina Leske, M, Hussein, M, Dong, LM, Fazzari, M, Hou, W, Schoenfeld, E, Dias, L, Harrison, R, Zhu, W, Zhang, Q, Wang, Y, Yassin, A, Schnall, E, Rau, C, Thomas, J, Wasserman, M, Chen, YJ, Ahmed, S, Merill, L, Passanant, L, Rodriguez, M, Schmertz, A, Park, A, Neuschwender, P, Veeraraghavan, G, Santomarco, A, Sisti, L, Seib, L, Everett, D, Marsh-Tootle, W, Niemann, K, Frazier, M, Baldwin, C, Dillard, C, Becker, K, Raley, J, Rawden, A, Harris, N, Mars, T, Rutstein, R, Kurtz, D, Weissberg, E, Moore, B, Harb, E, Owens, R, Martin, S, Bolden, J, Smith, J, Kern, D, Bittinger, S, Ghosh, D, Jaramillo, B, Hamlett, S, Vasilakos, L, Gladstone, S, Owens, C, Kowalski, P, Hazelwood, J, Manny, R, Crossnoe, C, Fern, K, Deatherage, S, Dudonis, C, Henry, S, McLeod, J, Batres, M, Quiralte, J, Garza, G, Solis, G, Do, J, Ketcham, A, Scheiman, M, Zinzer, K, Pollack, K, Lancaster, T, Elliott, T, Bernhardt, M, Ferrara, D, Miles, J, Wilkins, S, Wilkins, R, Smith, JN, D'Antonio, D, Lear, L, Dang, S, Sporer, C, Jameson, M, Grossman, A, Torres, M, Jones, H, Madigan-Carr, M, Sanogo, T & Bailey, JA 2013, 'Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET)', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 7871-7883. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12403
Hardy, Robert ; Hillis, Argye ; Mutti, Don ; Stone, Richard ; Taylor, Carol ; Dong, Li Ming ; Fazzari, Melissa ; Gwiazda, Jane ; Hyman, Leslie ; Norton, Thomas ; Thorn, Frank ; Zhang, Qinghua ; Gwiazda, Jane ; Norton, Thomas ; Grice, Kenneth ; Fortunato, Christine ; Weber, Cara ; Beale, Alexandra ; Kern, David ; Bittinger, Sally ; Ghosh, Debanjali ; Pacella, Rosanna ; Thorn, Frank ; Cristina Leske, M. ; Hussein, Mohamed ; Dong, Li Ming ; Fazzari, Melissa ; Hou, Wei ; Schoenfeld, Elinor ; Dias, Lynette ; Harrison, Rachel ; Zhu, Wen ; Zhang, Qinghua ; Wang, Ying ; Yassin, Ahmed ; Schnall, Elissa ; Rau, Cristi ; Thomas, Jennifer ; Wasserman, Marcela ; Chen, Yi Ju ; Ahmed, Sakeena ; Merill, Leanne ; Passanant, Lauretta ; Rodriguez, Maria ; Schmertz, Allison ; Park, Ann ; Neuschwender, Phyllis ; Veeraraghavan, Geeta ; Santomarco, Angela ; Sisti, Laura ; Seib, Lydia ; Everett, Donald ; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy ; Niemann, Katherine ; Frazier, Marcela ; Baldwin, Catherine ; Dillard, Carey ; Becker, Kristine ; Raley, James ; Rawden, Angela ; Harris, Nicholas ; Mars, Trana ; Rutstein, Robert ; Kurtz, Daniel ; Weissberg, Erik ; Moore, Bruce ; Harb, Elise ; Owens, Robert ; Martin, Sheila ; Bolden, Joanne ; Smith, Justin ; Kern, David ; Bittinger, Sally ; Ghosh, Debanjali ; Jaramillo, Benny ; Hamlett, Stacy ; Vasilakos, Laura ; Gladstone, Sarah ; Owens, Chris ; Kowalski, Patricia ; Hazelwood, Jennifer ; Manny, Ruth ; Crossnoe, Connie ; Fern, Karen ; Deatherage, Sheila ; Dudonis, Charles ; Henry, S. ; McLeod, Jennifer ; Batres, Mamie ; Quiralte, Julio ; Garza, Giselle ; Solis, Gabynely ; Do, Joan ; Ketcham, Andy ; Scheiman, Mitchell ; Zinzer, Kathleen ; Pollack, Karen ; Lancaster, Timothy ; Elliott, Theresa ; Bernhardt, Mark ; Ferrara, Dan ; Miles, Jeff ; Wilkins, Scott ; Wilkins, Renee ; Smith, Jennifer Nicole ; D'Antonio, Dawn ; Lear, Lindsey ; Dang, Sandy ; Sporer, Charles ; Jameson, Mary ; Grossman, Abby ; Torres, Mariel ; Jones, Heather ; Madigan-Carr, Melissa ; Sanogo, Theresa ; Bailey, Jo Ann. / Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET). In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2013 ; Vol. 54, No. 13. pp. 7871-7883.
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title = "Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET)",
abstract = "Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between -1.25 and -4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91{\%}) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was -4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, -4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = -0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions.",
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author = "Robert Hardy and Argye Hillis and Don Mutti and Richard Stone and Carol Taylor and Dong, {Li Ming} and Melissa Fazzari and Jane Gwiazda and Leslie Hyman and Thomas Norton and Frank Thorn and Qinghua Zhang and Jane Gwiazda and Thomas Norton and Kenneth Grice and Christine Fortunato and Cara Weber and Alexandra Beale and David Kern and Sally Bittinger and Debanjali Ghosh and Rosanna Pacella and Frank Thorn and {Cristina Leske}, M. and Mohamed Hussein and Dong, {Li Ming} and Melissa Fazzari and Wei Hou and Elinor Schoenfeld and Lynette Dias and Rachel Harrison and Wen Zhu and Qinghua Zhang and Ying Wang and Ahmed Yassin and Elissa Schnall and Cristi Rau and Jennifer Thomas and Marcela Wasserman and Chen, {Yi Ju} and Sakeena Ahmed and Leanne Merill and Lauretta Passanant and Maria Rodriguez and Allison Schmertz and Ann Park and Phyllis Neuschwender and Geeta Veeraraghavan and Angela Santomarco and Laura Sisti and Lydia Seib and Donald Everett and Wendy Marsh-Tootle and Katherine Niemann and Marcela Frazier and Catherine Baldwin and Carey Dillard and Kristine Becker and James Raley and Angela Rawden and Nicholas Harris and Trana Mars and Robert Rutstein and Daniel Kurtz and Erik Weissberg and Bruce Moore and Elise Harb and Robert Owens and Sheila Martin and Joanne Bolden and Justin Smith and David Kern and Sally Bittinger and Debanjali Ghosh and Benny Jaramillo and Stacy Hamlett and Laura Vasilakos and Sarah Gladstone and Chris Owens and Patricia Kowalski and Jennifer Hazelwood and Ruth Manny and Connie Crossnoe and Karen Fern and Sheila Deatherage and Charles Dudonis and S. Henry and Jennifer McLeod and Mamie Batres and Julio Quiralte and Giselle Garza and Gabynely Solis and Joan Do and Andy Ketcham and Mitchell Scheiman and Kathleen Zinzer and Karen Pollack and Timothy Lancaster and Theresa Elliott and Mark Bernhardt and Dan Ferrara and Jeff Miles and Scott Wilkins and Renee Wilkins and Smith, {Jennifer Nicole} and Dawn D'Antonio and Lindsey Lear and Sandy Dang and Charles Sporer and Mary Jameson and Abby Grossman and Mariel Torres and Heather Jones and Melissa Madigan-Carr and Theresa Sanogo and Bailey, {Jo Ann}",
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month = "10",
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doi = "10.1167/iovs.13-12403",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "54",
pages = "7871--7883",
journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science",
issn = "0146-0404",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the correction of myopia evaluation trial (COMET)

AU - Hardy, Robert

AU - Hillis, Argye

AU - Mutti, Don

AU - Stone, Richard

AU - Taylor, Carol

AU - Dong, Li Ming

AU - Fazzari, Melissa

AU - Gwiazda, Jane

AU - Hyman, Leslie

AU - Norton, Thomas

AU - Thorn, Frank

AU - Zhang, Qinghua

AU - Gwiazda, Jane

AU - Norton, Thomas

AU - Grice, Kenneth

AU - Fortunato, Christine

AU - Weber, Cara

AU - Beale, Alexandra

AU - Kern, David

AU - Bittinger, Sally

AU - Ghosh, Debanjali

AU - Pacella, Rosanna

AU - Thorn, Frank

AU - Cristina Leske, M.

AU - Hussein, Mohamed

AU - Dong, Li Ming

AU - Fazzari, Melissa

AU - Hou, Wei

AU - Schoenfeld, Elinor

AU - Dias, Lynette

AU - Harrison, Rachel

AU - Zhu, Wen

AU - Zhang, Qinghua

AU - Wang, Ying

AU - Yassin, Ahmed

AU - Schnall, Elissa

AU - Rau, Cristi

AU - Thomas, Jennifer

AU - Wasserman, Marcela

AU - Chen, Yi Ju

AU - Ahmed, Sakeena

AU - Merill, Leanne

AU - Passanant, Lauretta

AU - Rodriguez, Maria

AU - Schmertz, Allison

AU - Park, Ann

AU - Neuschwender, Phyllis

AU - Veeraraghavan, Geeta

AU - Santomarco, Angela

AU - Sisti, Laura

AU - Seib, Lydia

AU - Everett, Donald

AU - Marsh-Tootle, Wendy

AU - Niemann, Katherine

AU - Frazier, Marcela

AU - Baldwin, Catherine

AU - Dillard, Carey

AU - Becker, Kristine

AU - Raley, James

AU - Rawden, Angela

AU - Harris, Nicholas

AU - Mars, Trana

AU - Rutstein, Robert

AU - Kurtz, Daniel

AU - Weissberg, Erik

AU - Moore, Bruce

AU - Harb, Elise

AU - Owens, Robert

AU - Martin, Sheila

AU - Bolden, Joanne

AU - Smith, Justin

AU - Kern, David

AU - Bittinger, Sally

AU - Ghosh, Debanjali

AU - Jaramillo, Benny

AU - Hamlett, Stacy

AU - Vasilakos, Laura

AU - Gladstone, Sarah

AU - Owens, Chris

AU - Kowalski, Patricia

AU - Hazelwood, Jennifer

AU - Manny, Ruth

AU - Crossnoe, Connie

AU - Fern, Karen

AU - Deatherage, Sheila

AU - Dudonis, Charles

AU - Henry, S.

AU - McLeod, Jennifer

AU - Batres, Mamie

AU - Quiralte, Julio

AU - Garza, Giselle

AU - Solis, Gabynely

AU - Do, Joan

AU - Ketcham, Andy

AU - Scheiman, Mitchell

AU - Zinzer, Kathleen

AU - Pollack, Karen

AU - Lancaster, Timothy

AU - Elliott, Theresa

AU - Bernhardt, Mark

AU - Ferrara, Dan

AU - Miles, Jeff

AU - Wilkins, Scott

AU - Wilkins, Renee

AU - Smith, Jennifer Nicole

AU - D'Antonio, Dawn

AU - Lear, Lindsey

AU - Dang, Sandy

AU - Sporer, Charles

AU - Jameson, Mary

AU - Grossman, Abby

AU - Torres, Mariel

AU - Jones, Heather

AU - Madigan-Carr, Melissa

AU - Sanogo, Theresa

AU - Bailey, Jo Ann

PY - 2013/10/3

Y1 - 2013/10/3

N2 - Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between -1.25 and -4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was -4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, -4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = -0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions.

AB - Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between -1.25 and -4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was -4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, -4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = -0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions.

KW - Associated factors

KW - Gompertz function

KW - Myopia

KW - Myopia progression

KW - Myopia stabilization

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U2 - 10.1167/iovs.13-12403

DO - 10.1167/iovs.13-12403

M3 - Article

C2 - 24159085

AN - SCOPUS:84889677202

VL - 54

SP - 7871

EP - 7883

JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

JF - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

SN - 0146-0404

IS - 13

ER -