Multicenter investigation on the influence of climate in penile prosthesis infection

Martin S. Gross, Annah J. Vollstedt, Mario A. Cleves, Sidney Glina, Stanton C. Honig, Paul Perito, Peter J. Stahl, Mariano Rosselló Gayá, Edward Gheiler, David J. Ralph, Tobias Köhler, Doron S. Stember, Rafael Carrion, Pedro Maria, William O. Brant, Bruce Garber, Arthur L. Burnett, J. Francois Eid, Gerard D. Henry, Ricardo Munarriz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) infection, time of year, climate, temperature and humidity. This is a retrospective IRB-approved analysis of 211 patients at 25 institutions who underwent salvage procedure or device explant between 2001 and 2016. Patient data were compiled after an extensive review of all aspects of their electronic medical records. Climate data were compiled from monthly norms based on location, as well as specific data regarding temperature, dew point, and humidity from dates of surgery. Rigorous statistical analysis was performed. We found that penile prosthesis infections occurred more commonly in June (n = 24) and less frequently during the winter months (n = 39), with the lowest number occurring in March (n = 11). One-hundred thirty-nine infections occurred at average daily temperatures greater than 55 °F, compared to 72 infections at less than 55 °F. The incidence rate ratio for this trend was 1.93, with a p-value of <0.001. Humidity results were similar, and fungal infections correlate with daily humidity. Infected implants performed in the fall and summer were over 3 and 2.3 times, respectively, more likely to grow Gram-positive bacteria compared to implants performed in spring (p = 0.004; p = 0.039). This was consistent across geographic location, including in the Southern hemisphere. We found trends between climate factors and IPP infection like those seen and proven in other surgical literature. To our knowledge these data represent the first exploration of the relationship between temperature and infection in prosthetic urology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-392
Number of pages6
JournalInternational journal of impotence research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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