Modulation of the folding energy landscape of cytochrome c with salt

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18 Scopus citations


The folding reaction of acid-unfolded cytochrome c in the presence of various amounts of KCl was investigated with Trp fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. It was found that the too-early-too-much polypeptide chain collapse induced by KCl yields some stable folding intermediates, which need to overcome a higher energy barrier to fold into their native conformation. We propose that the charge distribution on the polypeptide chain is part of the folding codon encoded in the linear amino acid sequence. The charge screening effect introduced by KCl alters the shape of the energy landscape by raising the slope of the upper rim and introduces a rugged energy surface toward the bottom of the folding funnel.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13934-13935
Number of pages2
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number43
StatePublished - Nov 3 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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