Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex condition and remains a prominent public and medical health issue in individuals of all ages. A rapid increase in extracellular glutamate occurs after TBI, leading to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which causes neuronal damage and further functional impairments. Although inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) is considered a potential approach for reducing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity after TBI, further detailed evidence regarding its efficacy is required. Therefore, in this study, we examined the differences in the metabolite status between wild-type (WT) and GCP II gene-knockout (KO) mice after TBI using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a 7-tesla imaging system, and brain water-content analysis. Results: Evaluation of glutamate and N-acetylaspartate concentrations revealed a decrease in both levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus at 24 h post-TBI; however, the reduction in glutamate and N-acetylaspartate levels was less marked in GCP II-KO mice than in WT mice (p < 0.05). T2 MR data and brain water-content analysis demonstrated that the extent of cortical edema and brain swelling was less in KO than in WT mice after TBI (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Using two non-invasive methods, 1H-MRS and T2 MR imaging, as well as in vitro brain-water content measurements, we demonstrated that the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of GCP II-KO against brain swelling in TBI involves changes in glutamate and N-acetylaspartate levels. This knowledge may contribute towards the development of therapeutic strategies for TBI.
- Brain edema
- Glutamate carboxypeptidase II
- Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)
- Traumatic brain injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience