Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the US and cirrhotic patients with CDI have increased risk for poor outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of CDI on short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis and identify predictors of mortality in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients at Montefiore Medical Center from 2010 to 2014 with cirrhosis, diarrhea and a C. difficile toxin assay. Demographics, co-morbidities, medications, laboratory data and outcomes were recorded. Results: Of 701 patients with cirrhosis who had a CDI assay, 183 were CDI+ and 518 CDI−. Patients with CDI were older, had more frequent CKD on hemodialysis and heart failure, were less frequently on rifaximin and lactulose and had increased glucocorticoid exposure. 30-day mortality was higher in patients with CDI (23.0% vs 16.6%, p < 0.05) compared to those without. Univariate predictors of 30-day mortality included WBC, corticosteroid use, AST, ALT, MELD, albumin, HBV and HCV infection; however, via multivariate analysis, only MELD (HR: 1.04 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) remained significant. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis and CDI are at greater risk of 30-day mortality than those without CDI and the only multivariate predictor of mortality is MELD. These patients should have their disease severity triaged based upon MELD score.
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