Manganese: Brain transport and emerging research needs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

135 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the potential susceptibility of selected populations (e.g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-432
Number of pages4
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume108
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Manganese
Parkinson Disease
brain
manganese
Brain
Research
Industrial chemicals
environmental modeling
Automobiles
need
Dystonia
life expectancy
Poisons
etiology
Neurology
Jurisprudence
Motor Vehicles
nervous system
Life Expectancy
Pesticides

Keywords

  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Manganese tricarbonyl methylcyclopentadienyl (MMT)
  • Transferrin
  • Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Manganese : Brain transport and emerging research needs. / Aschner, Michael.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, No. SUPPL. 3, 2000, p. 429-432.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0b0d90f37f3745e7b54eb5634b0036cd,
title = "Manganese: Brain transport and emerging research needs",
abstract = "Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2{\%} of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the potential susceptibility of selected populations (e.g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn.",
keywords = "Iron, Manganese, Manganese tricarbonyl methylcyclopentadienyl (MMT), Transferrin, Transport",
author = "Michael Aschner",
year = "2000",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "108",
pages = "429--432",
journal = "Environmental Health Perspectives",
issn = "0091-6765",
publisher = "Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services",
number = "SUPPL. 3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Manganese

T2 - Brain transport and emerging research needs

AU - Aschner, Michael

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the potential susceptibility of selected populations (e.g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn.

AB - Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) represents a common neurodegenerative disorder. An estimated 2% of the U.S. population, age 65 and older, develops IPD. The number of IPD patients will certainly increase over the next several decades as the baby-boomers gradually step into this high-risk age group, concomitant with the increase in the average life expectancy. While many studies have suggested that industrial chemicals and pesticides may underlie IPD, its etiology remains elusive. Among the toxic metals, the relationship between manganese intoxication and IPD has long been recognized. The neurological signs of manganism have received close attention because they resemble several clinical disorders collectively described as extrapyramidal motor system dysfunction, and in particular, IPD and dystonia. However, distinct dissimilarities between IPD and manganism are well established, and it remains to be determined whether Mn plays an etiologic role in IPD. It is particularly noteworthy that as a result of a recent court decision, methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl (MMT) is presently available in the United States and Canada for use in fuel, replacing lead as an antiknock additive. The impact of potential long-term exposure to low levels of MMT combustion products that may be present in emissions from automobiles has yet to be fully evaluated. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that recent studies with various environmental modeling approaches in the Montreal metropolitan (where MMT has been used for more than 10 years) suggest that airborne Mn levels were quite similar to those in areas where MMT was not used. These studies also show that Mn is emitted from the tail pipe of motor vehicles primarily as a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate. This brief review characterizes the Mn speciation in the blood and the transport kinetics of Mn into the central nervous system, a critical step in the accumulation of Mn within the brain, outlines the potential susceptibility of selected populations (e.g., iron-deficient) to Mn exposure, and addresses future research needs for Mn.

KW - Iron

KW - Manganese

KW - Manganese tricarbonyl methylcyclopentadienyl (MMT)

KW - Transferrin

KW - Transport

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033911123&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033911123&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10852840

AN - SCOPUS:0033911123

VL - 108

SP - 429

EP - 432

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - SUPPL. 3

ER -