Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the long-term clinical impact of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Background: Conduction disturbances leading to PPI are common following TAVR. However, no data exist regarding the impact of PPI on long-term outcomes post-TAVR. Methods: This was a multicenter study including a total of 1,629 patients without prior PPI undergoing TAVR (balloon- and self-expandable valves in 45% and 55% of patients, respectively). Follow-up clinical, echocardiographic, and pacing data were obtained at a median of 4 years (interquartile range: 3 to 5 years) post-TAVR. Results: PPI was required in 322 (19.8%) patients within 30 days post-TAVR (26.9% and 10.9% in patients receiving self- and balloon-expandable CoreValve and Edwards systems, respectively). Up to 86% of patients with PPI exhibited pacing >1% of the time during follow-up (>40% pacing in 51% of patients). There were no differences between patients with and without PPI in total mortality (48.5% vs. 42.9%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95 to 1.39; p = 0.15) and cardiovascular mortality (14.9% vs. 15.5%, adjusted HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.30; p = 0.66) at follow-up. However, patients with PPI had higher rates of rehospitalization due to heart failure (22.4% vs. 16.1%; adjusted HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.89; p = 0.019), and the combined endpoint of mortality or heart failure rehospitalization (59.6% vs. 51.9%; adjusted HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.48; p = 0.011). PPI was associated with lesser improvement in LVEF over time (p = 0.051 for changes in LVEF between groups), particularly in patients with reduced LVEF before TAVR (p = 0.005 for changes in LVEF between groups). Conclusions: The need for PPI post-TAVR was frequent and associated with an increased risk of heart failure rehospitalization and lack of LVEF improvement, but not mortality, after a median follow-up of 4 years. Most patients with new PPI post-TAVR exhibited some degree of pacing activity at follow-up.
- aortic stenosis
- left ventricular ejection fraction
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine