Objectives: To report the long-term clinical outcomes and durability of response after treatment with induction intravesical docetaxel. Most novel agents used to treat bacillus Calmette-Guerin refractory high-grade non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer are evaluated only after short follow-up periods. Our previously published phase I trial demonstrated that docetaxel is a safe agent for intravesical therapy with minimal toxicity and no detectable systemic absorption. We sought to determine long-term clinical outcomes after treatment with intravesical docetaxel. Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent Ta (n = 7), T1 (n = 5), and Tis (n = 6) transitional cell carcinoma who experienced treatment failure with at least 1 prior intravesical therapy completed the phase I trial. Docetaxel was administered as 6 weekly intravesical instillations using a dose-escalation model terminated at 0.75 mg/mL. Efficacy was evaluated by interval cystoscopy with biopsies when indicated, cytology, and computed tomography imaging. Follow-up consisted of quarterly cystoscopy, cytology, computed tomography, and biopsy when indicated. Results: With a median follow-up of 48.3 months, 4 patients (22%) have demonstrated a complete durable response and currently remain disease-free without further treatment. Three patients (17%) had a partial response, defined as a single NMI recurrence with no further therapy for bladder cancer. Eleven patients (61%) failed treatment, and required another intervention. One patient developed stage progression. No delayed toxicities were noted. The median disease-free survival time was 13.3 months. Conclusions: After 4 years of follow-up without maintenance therapy, intravesical docetaxel has demonstrated the ability to prevent recurrence in a select number of patients with refractory NMI bladder cancer and warrants further investigation.
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