Microsporida are protozoan parasites that have recently been identified as a cause of human disease in immunocompromised patients. Because of their small size, they have been recognized primarily by electron microscopy. This has limited the study of their prevalence, incidence, and association with large-volume diarrhea. The present report describes two cases of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection of the small intestine in patients with intractable diarrhea in whom the diagnosis was made by light microscopy and confirmed by electron microscopy. Both patients were treated with octreotide, and one had a good response.
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