Leptomeningeal Metastases in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Optimal Systemic Management in NSCLC With and Without Driver Mutations

Mariam Alexander, Emily Lin, Haiying Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

As a devastating complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the incidence of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is rising, largely due to overall longer survival of NSCLC, especially in patients with targetable molecular driver mutations. There is no clear consensus on the optimal management of LM. This review will cover recent advances in diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of LM in NSCLC. In LM without oncogene drivers, systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal therapy, and radiation have modestly improved the clinical outcomes. Emerging data have also suggested encouraging activity of immunotherapy. At the same time, in LM with sensitizing EGFR mutations, osimertinib should be considered regardless of T790M status. Pulse erlotinib, afatinib, and newer agents with improved CNS penetration have also shown benefits. Moreover, accumulating evidences support potential benefits of molecularly targeted therapy in ALK-rearranged and other oncogene-driven NSCLC with LM. Future studies are warranted to better define the underlying mechanism, to optimize the clinical management, and to improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number72
JournalCurrent treatment options in oncology
Volume21
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Keywords

  • EGFR mutations
  • Leptomeningeal
  • Lung cancer
  • Targeted therapies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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