Kidney disease in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts: Prevalence and predictors of kidney disease at enrolment in the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial

International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) START Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Objectives: HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Little is known about the prevalence of CKD in individuals with high CD4 cell counts prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to address this knowledge gap. Methods: We describe the prevalence of CKD among 4637 ART-naïve adults (mean age 36.8 years) with CD4 cell counts >500 cells/μL at enrolment in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60mL/min/1.73m2 and/or dipstick urine protein ≥1+. Logistic regression was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with CKD. Results: Among 286 [6.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5%, 6.9%] participants with CKD, the majority had isolated proteinuria. A total of 268 participants had urine protein ≥1+, including 41 with urine protein ≥2+. Only 22 participants (0.5%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60mL/min/1.73m2, including four who also had proteinuria. Baseline characteristics independently associated with CKD included diabetes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.73; 95% CI 1.05, 2.85], hypertension (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.38, 2.38), and race/ethnicity (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.37, 0.93 for Hispanic vs. white). Conclusions: We observed a low prevalence of CKD associated with traditional CKD risk factors among ART-naïve clinical trial participants with CD4 cell counts >500 cells/μL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-63
Number of pages9
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015



  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Kidney disease
  • Strategic timing of antiretroviral treatment (START) trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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