Background: The immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), but it remains unclear whether bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may affect the risk of AD or not. Methods: Using retrospective chart review, we collected data regarding demographics, comorbidities, cancer diagnosis, BCG treatment, and subsequent diagnosis of AD or other dementia in a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NIMBC) receiving treatment between 1984 and 2020 in the Bronx, New York. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine association between BCG treatment and risk of incident AD or other dementia, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and major comorbidities. Results: In our cohort of 1290 patients with NMIBC, a total of 99 (7.7%) patients developed AD or other dementia during follow-up. Patients who received BCG treatment (25%) had a 60% lowered incidence of AD or other dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.80) in comparison to those who did not receive BCG. There was also suggestive evidence that the reduction in risk of AD or other dementia associated with BCG treatment was stronger in men (adjusted HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.81) but not in women (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.25-2.24). When we stratified the patients who received BCG by type of treatments, patients who received both induction and maintenance rounds of BCG had a further lowered incidence of AD or other dementia (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.96) than patients who did not receive BCG. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is one of the first to suggest that BCG treatment is associated with a reduced risk of developing AD or other dementia in a multiethnic population, independent of significant comorbidities. Larger cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.
- Intravesical Therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas