Intravascular ultrasound catheter evaluation of the left ventricle in mice

A feasibility study

Julius M. Gardin, Francis Siri, Richard N. Kitsis, Leslie Leinwand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40- 150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two- dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360°) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm 'ringdown' catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two- dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to permit accurate estimates of L V mass and systolic function. Currently, IVUS catheter-based approaches are not feasible for imaging murine L V anatomy and function. Limitations include: (1) inadequate temporal resolution might be improved by ECG gating; (2) limited depth of field possibly resolvable by lower frequency transducers; and (3) relatively large catheter size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-612
Number of pages4
JournalEchocardiography
Volume13
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Feasibility Studies
Heart Ventricles
Catheters
Transducers
Left Ventricular Function
Anatomy
Endocardium
Pericardium
Pentobarbital
Punctures
Artifacts
Transgenic Mice
Echocardiography
Electrocardiography
Thorax
Technology

Keywords

  • echocardiography
  • intravascular ultrasound
  • left ventricle
  • mice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Intravascular ultrasound catheter evaluation of the left ventricle in mice : A feasibility study. / Gardin, Julius M.; Siri, Francis; Kitsis, Richard N.; Leinwand, Leslie.

In: Echocardiography, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1996, p. 609-612.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gardin, Julius M. ; Siri, Francis ; Kitsis, Richard N. ; Leinwand, Leslie. / Intravascular ultrasound catheter evaluation of the left ventricle in mice : A feasibility study. In: Echocardiography. 1996 ; Vol. 13, No. 6. pp. 609-612.
@article{52181daa248b47a8a0bc550920e3179f,
title = "Intravascular ultrasound catheter evaluation of the left ventricle in mice: A feasibility study",
abstract = "With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40- 150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two- dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360°) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm 'ringdown' catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two- dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to permit accurate estimates of L V mass and systolic function. Currently, IVUS catheter-based approaches are not feasible for imaging murine L V anatomy and function. Limitations include: (1) inadequate temporal resolution might be improved by ECG gating; (2) limited depth of field possibly resolvable by lower frequency transducers; and (3) relatively large catheter size.",
keywords = "echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound, left ventricle, mice",
author = "Gardin, {Julius M.} and Francis Siri and Kitsis, {Richard N.} and Leslie Leinwand",
year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "609--612",
journal = "Echocardiography",
issn = "0742-2822",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intravascular ultrasound catheter evaluation of the left ventricle in mice

T2 - A feasibility study

AU - Gardin, Julius M.

AU - Siri, Francis

AU - Kitsis, Richard N.

AU - Leinwand, Leslie

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40- 150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two- dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360°) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm 'ringdown' catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two- dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to permit accurate estimates of L V mass and systolic function. Currently, IVUS catheter-based approaches are not feasible for imaging murine L V anatomy and function. Limitations include: (1) inadequate temporal resolution might be improved by ECG gating; (2) limited depth of field possibly resolvable by lower frequency transducers; and (3) relatively large catheter size.

AB - With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40- 150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two- dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360°) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm 'ringdown' catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two- dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to permit accurate estimates of L V mass and systolic function. Currently, IVUS catheter-based approaches are not feasible for imaging murine L V anatomy and function. Limitations include: (1) inadequate temporal resolution might be improved by ECG gating; (2) limited depth of field possibly resolvable by lower frequency transducers; and (3) relatively large catheter size.

KW - echocardiography

KW - intravascular ultrasound

KW - left ventricle

KW - mice

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029806322&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029806322&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 609

EP - 612

JO - Echocardiography

JF - Echocardiography

SN - 0742-2822

IS - 6

ER -