Background Surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) relies on localization and resection of all tumor foci. We describe the benefit of combined intraoperative use of a portable large field of view gamma camera (LFOVGC) and a handheld gamma detection probe (HGDP) for indium-111 (111In)-pentetreotide radioguided localization and confirmation of gastrinoma resection in ZES. Study Design Five patients (6 cases) with 111In-pentetreotide-avid ZES were evaluated. Patients were injected with 111In-pentetreotide for diagnostic imaging the day before surgery. Intraoperatively, an HGDP and LFOVGC were used to localize 111In-pentetreotide-avid lesions, guide resection, assess specimens for 111In-pentetreotide activity, and to verify lack of abnormal post-resection surgical field activity. Results Large field of view gamma camera imaging and HGDP-assisted detection were helpful for localization and guided resection of tumor and removal of 111In-pentetreotide-avid tumor foci in all cases. In 3 of 5 patients (3 of 6 cases), these techniques led to detection and resection of additional tumor foci beyond those detected by standard surgical techniques. The 111In-pentetreotide-positive or-negative specimens correlated with neuroendocrine tumors or benign pathology, respectively. In one patient with mild residual focal activity on post-resection portable LFOVGC imaging, thought to be artifact, had recurrence of disease in the same area 5 months after surgery. Conclusions Real-time LFOVGC imaging and HGDP use for surgical management of gastrinoma improve success of localizing and resecting all neuroendocrine tumor-positive tumor foci, providing instantaneous navigational feedback. This approach holds potential for improving long-term patient outcomes in patients with ZES.
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