Intestinal transplantation has been gradually instituted in the management of intestinal failure. More than 200 cases including isolated intestinal transplant, liver/intestinal transplant, and multivisceral transplant have been performed worldwide, with 1-year graft and patient survival rates of 66% and 54%, respectively. Indications for the procedure include short bowel syndrome and functional abnormalities secondary to a variety of diseases or conditions. Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimens have been used universally with improved outcomes. The major contributors to the morbidity and mortality include rejection, infection, and technical complications. Of those, control of rejection remains the most difficult dilemma and it will be the key to improved patient and graft survival.
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