We have studied the effect of insulin stimulation on phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity in the well-differentiated rat hepatoma cell line Fao. PTPase activity was measured using a 32P-labeled peptide corresponding to the major site of insulin receptor autophosphorylation. Of the PTPase activity in Fao cells, 14% was in the cytosolic fraction, whereas 86% was in the particulate fraction; this latter fraction also had a 4-fold higher specific activity. Purification of the particulate fraction by lectin chromatography resulted in a 50% increase in specific activity, although this glycoprotein-rich fraction contained only 1.5% of the total activity. Both the cytosolic and particulate PTPase fractions were active toward the tyrosyl-phosphorylated insulin receptor in vitro. The activity of the particulate fraction but not the cytosolic fraction was inhibited by addition of a micromolar concentration of a phosphorylated peptide corresponding to residues 1142-1153 of the human insulin receptor sequence. By contrast, addition of the nonphosphorylated peptide even at millimolar concentration was without effect. Both PTPase fractions were inhibited by Zn+ at similar concentrations, whereas the cytosolic PTPase activity was 10-fold more sensitive to vanadate inhibition. Treatment of cells with 100 nM insulin increased PTPase activity in the particulate fraction by 40% and decreased activity in the cytosolic fraction by 35%. These effects occurred within 15 min and were half-maximal at 3-4 nM insulin. When assessed as total activity, the magnitude of the changes in PTPase activity in the particulate and cytosolic fractions could not be explained on the basis of a translocation of PTPases between the two pools. We conclude that hepatoma cells possess discrete membrane and cytosolic PTPases with activity toward the tyrosyl-phosphorylated insulin receptor which can be regulated by physiological concentrations of insulin. PTPases may therefore modulate the tyrosyl phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its substrates, and may be involved in the regulation of insulin-stimulated metabolic and growth-related effects.
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